Tuesday, February 18, 2020
Child care - Essay Example The Australian governments has taken several measures such as child care benefit determination 2000, GST free supply determination 2002, family assistance determination 2003, to ensure that children receive best attention and to improve child care facilities. Child care centers provide services throughout standard hours, weekends, overnight, school holidays, before and after school working hours etc. For working parents, it is a safe place to entrust their children to the care of the qualified child care workers. Generally, they follow a policy of strict confidentiality and do not reveal any information related to children and parents to outsiders. When the children are enrolled, an agreement is signed between parents and the childcare centers. First of all, the child care centre agrees to provide a secure, homely environment to all children. There wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be any discrimination between children based on caste, religion, color, and financial status. Moreover, they provide a conducive atmosphere for the mental and physical development of children. They also promise to inculcate good qualities in the child through moral education. In return for all these services, the parents agree to provide a certain amount as fees. There is an effec tive mechanism in place in order to deal with complaints from the parents as well as the children. All the grievances of parents and children are immediately looked into and according to the specific nature of the complaints, actions are recommended. As the child care centers have several qualified trained personnel, they can bring up children in a secure, family focused environment. The children in child care centre learn through play and examination. Sometimes, unqualified child worker may look after children in a child care centre, childÃ¢â¬â¢s home, or at carerÃ¢â¬â¢s home. They also work in hospitals, womenÃ¢â¬â¢s shelters and some
Monday, February 3, 2020
Organizational Behavior - Essay Example f organizational behavior leads to good relationships among the employees, poor organizational behavior management can lead to poor performance among the individual employees and groups (McGinnis, 2006). Group dynamics affect the operations of organizations. In most cases, group dynamics negatively affect the employee performance. Various theories explain factors responsible for the various behavioral types employees exhibit towards each other. The variance theory explains the various causes of behavior in an organizational context. The organizational structure, people, technology and the working environment are the most important factors influencing organizational behavior (McGinnis, 2006). If there is the absence of joy and happiness in the workplace, diagnosing the causes of these incidences is the only way of solving these problems. Meetings are an important component for effective management. Despite the escalated issues affecting the organization bovver time, and issues in the meetings, the organization has not done away with the meetings. The role played by meetings in the management process and policy formulation strategies has considerable effects in any organization. They help in the policy implementation process by designing the way and direction the organizations should take. In an effort to achieve normal operations in the organization and meetings serve their intended purpose, discipline is essential. Calling of names, flaming emails between co-workers, official charges brought to HR, uncivil behavior in meetings leading, sometimes, to screaming, name-calling, and physical threats is an indication of unmotivated, stressed and an organizational work that lacks morals. Changing the organizational structure is one of the ways of achieving the change (Hofstede, et al., 1997). According to systems theory, organizations are organs comprised of different parts performing a similar task. However, the criteria of organizing these parts determine the
Sunday, January 26, 2020
Business Practices Faced By Richard Branson Commerce Essay This is where it all began, Richard Branson, best known for his Virgin Group is of over 400 companies. Born in July 18, 1950; destined to become one of the best known British entrepreneurs. Beginning at the age of 16 with his first successful business venture; publishing Student magazine, beginning his string of successes. Richard Branson is now the 212th richest person in the world. Estimated a net worth of approximately 4 Billion a dollars; honoured for his degree of Doctor of Technology, knighted for his services to entrepreneurship, becoming on the greatest British citizen and most influential people in the world by BBC and Time Magazine. Being an adventurer Branson is, he never hesitates to take risks and experiment with new ventures, now one of the most recognized brands in the world. The Company Philosophy Try new things, branch out, and when you cant find success with one venture, you simply move on to the next Sir Richard Bransons philosophy above simply puts Virgin Group into prospective. The Virgin group was founded by Sir Richard Charles Nicholas Branson in 1970; started one of his many entrepreneurial ventures at the age of 16, when he started a magazine titled Student in 1968. Later in 1970, Richard launched a mail order record company called Virgin, which was also a success, and soon after a chain of Virgin record stores followed. In 1973, Branson entered into the music recording business and went on to sign artists such as the Rolling Stones. However, that did not satisfy Bransons entrepreneurial quest and he was looking for opportunities to diversify his business. Hence, in 1984 he ventured into the airline industry with Virgin Atlantic, which went on to become the second largest airline in Britain. The Virgin group then continued to expand with the launch of Virgin Publishing, Virgin Radio, Virgin Cola, Virgin Direct and Virgin Rail. Nevertheless, the Virgin Group was not always free of failures. One major setback for Virgin was the acquisition of Virgin Records by EMI in 1992. The other road bumps for Virgin were duds like Virgin Cola, Virgin Vodka, Virgin Cinemas, Virgin Cars and Virgin Cosmetics that were not very successful ventures sign of a true entrepreneur. But that does not mean that Virgin gives quantity more priority over quality. Every business venture is carefully calculated and analyzed keeping in mind the market demand, customer needs and innovation of products and services. Today, Virgin group is a leading branded venture capital organization and consists of more than 300 companies worldwide with products and services ranging from music, telecommunications, beverages, airlines, media and finance. The growth strategy of Virgin Group is based on the concept of licensing and franchising the Virgin brand name and being involved in the establishment of the ventures from scratch rather than acquiring and buying out existing businesses. The Virgin Brand is ever expanding and diversifying and Branson always encourages innovation and the wide range of products and services offered under the Virgin brand name exemplifies that. In the future years the strategic plan of Virgin is to launch two more ventures: Virgin Fuel (Cheaper, more efficient eco-friendly fuel), Virgin Galactic (Suborbital Space flights; which are set to revolutionize the business world). Brief Timeline 1970 With the success of Virgin Records, Virgin Group was founded, a catalyst for this creation. 1999 Virgin Atlantic was developed, a British train service. 2002 Virgin entered the mobile phone business, Virgin Mobile, opening similar mobile ventures in Britain, Australia, Singapore, Hong Kong and South Korea. 2004 The independent charitable arm of the Virgin Group was established as Virgin Unite. 2005 Virgin Comics launched. 2006 Virgin Holidays established with a very econ friendly view by using all its profits in research and development of sustainable sources of energy. 2008 Virgin Radio rebranded. 2009 Virgin Group launches Digital Help Company in New York and in the UK. 2010 Unveiling of Virgin Gaming, an online destination for competitive console gamers. 2011+ Virgin Fuel Virgin Galactic Sectors that Virgin Group diversifies into: The Virgin group has been diversifying for a long time now. The company is occupied in different types of sectors and currently has around 240 or even more corporations. Richard Branson also ventured into the wildest sectors-Virgin Space Port. The diagram below lists the various sectors that the Virgin Group is diversified into: C:UsersalwardiDesktopVMS.jpg Why we chose this particular business over others? Virgin Megastores are known worldwide about its products and services. Every time you pass by the store you are curious much to know if they have any new products. At times you get surprised by seeing some movies and music albums that are yet to be released in America. Virgin mega store is a place where you can go for everything that involves entertainment. It has a sense of youth in the store; that awakens the young sprit. As for the staff are mostly youngsters. Virgin gives them the opportunity and flexibility to cope between work and studies. This gives a good reflection about Virgin brand. There products varies from educational to entertainment. It used to be only entertainment but after diversification; it serves all ages. When you approach any Virgin employee and ask them about any specific product they would be very confident and explain everything. In addition; other information that concerns the past and current status of the products. Advantages and Disadvantages of such a Business Each and every business has its own advantages and disadvantages. Each and every department has its own ways. Thus, every department differs. In general these are the advantages and disadvantages: Advantages Virgin Megastores Bahrain have a no competition with other brands. As its the only one in the country that sells everything that you require from a pencil to a laptop. There is nothing like virgin in Bahrain; when you enter searching for something you can easily find it. When you compare the Middle East and United States of America there is a major difference. Over there are other companies and stores that offer the same type of business but the middle east Virgin Megastores is one of a kind; and the first. Disadvantages However, the use of internet these days has increased significantly; and copying of the original music and movies too. As Virgin Megastores has a wide range of music CDs and movies; the sales are reduced due to piracy; illegally downloading materials from the internet. So consumer view why should I buy something that I can get easily free. Thus, causing a major loss to Companies like virgin. To add on, Virgin Megastores are diversified into many departments example: music, movies, books, etc. This causes some complications; that your focus is not only on one thing but several things at the same time. Leadership Leadership can be defined as the art of influencing other people to achieve the companys goals and objectives in a way to make it more consistent and cohesive. (Hubpages, 2010) Leading people in the right path processes leadership in order to accomplish a common goal. Leadership ensures that the organization works successfully in accomplishing its desired goals. Good managers are characterized by their leadership skills and experience for the aim in getting high performed and well organized company. They are the backbone of the company to maximize their productivity at the same time create harmony between employees which results to better outcome and efficiency. Only leaders have the ability to encourage their employees to work efficiently toward achieving the companys best interest. (WIR,2010) Types of leadership Leadership style is the method and approach used by leaders to achieve objectives, provide direction and motivates people when working with others. It is the manner in which leaders interact with their subordinates. Given below are the different ways leadership styles have been defined: Transactional Leaders: this type of leadership involves a process of exchange between the leader and the follower (subordinate). The leader tends to obtain compliance on one hand by offering incentive on performance and on the other hand, by offering threats or punishment for bad performance and non-compliance. Transformational leaders: this type of leadership style is more visionary and inspirational in approach. The leaders here have a tendency to provoke intense emotion and communicate a clear and acceptable vision and goals with which the subordinates can easily identify. Autocratic leaders: here, the leaders are the decision makers and have total authority. This type of leadership style is used for employees that require close supervision to perform certain tasks. (Lewin, Lippitt White, 1939) Democratic leaders: this type of leader always listens to his teams ideas and analysis them, but he/she will make the final decision. Here the team players contribute to the final decision making and therefore, employee satisfaction increases. (Lewin, Lippitt White, 1939) Laissez-faire leader: this type of leadership provides no continuous supervision, as the employees are highly experienced and do not require much supervision. Leadership at Virgin:- The person who made Virgin Group an outstanding business empire by changing and diversifying the business from a magazine to a range of companies at the present time is one of the worlds most effective leader and risk taker Mr. Richard Branson. This effective leader now owns 360 companies worldwide, which operate, now in eight different sectors, from music to transportation, media, travel, etc. (AUV, 2010). There are many effective methods used by Mr. Richard Branson in conditions of leading his employees. Mr Richard Branson has all the features every good leader as he adopts his own personal style of management. He maintained a very good relationship with the media, as he was known for his charisma. His leadership power motivated his employees as he supported them by financial incentives. Apart from the financial incentives given to his employees, he has his own way of motivating his employees by sharing with them stories of how he succeeded in life and shares his enthusiasm to help others by establishing various non-profit organizations in order to support young entrepreneurs. His introduction of new green technologies in the business was one of his major investments towards the safety and health of the environment; made his leadership strategies different from others (VSD.2010) Richard Branson follows both the democratic as well as the Laissez-faire leadership style, as his employees are involved in decision making indicating the decentralization technique used by him allowing his employees to participate in leadership. Applying his supportive leadership style where he loom his employees to become friendly and caring. His employees are allowed to have an open communication with the top-level management without any restrictions. (Hill. McShane, 2008) Richard Branson leadership approach has resulted to a significant achievement for the virgin group. Branson had been demonstrated conceivably enhanced than any other investor for the past thirty years worldwide. (BAG, 2010) Strategies of the Virgin Group: Virgin group played a very important role in Mr. Richard Bransons life; it not only transformed the company, but also transformed himself as known now to be a person who is willing to take risk at any time and a daring man. According to him, no was never the right answer now was it a solution. With the help of the strategies he had adopted, every opportunity, which came knocking on his door, was accepted. Not all of the strategies used by Mr Branson to diversify the company were successful; the strategies had their pros and cons. below are few strategies that are applied in virgin group in general regardless to the various sectors they are diversified into: Since the word NO is one of Bransons favorite words, the company uses Risk Management as their core strategy to capture any idea. Risk management is the method used by the company to manage and control risks and threats that comes to their way. The philosophy used by the virgin group is by separating the risks into various segments so that if any loss occurs, the whole group will not go down at once. At any crises point, this approach guarantees the company that only a tiny proportion of the company is affected. The virgin group also applied the Unrelated Diversification strategy. As seen today, Mr. Branson has expanded his company, diversified it and also invested money in different sectors yet, still uses the same brand name. He moved from sectors like Virgin Airlines to Virgin travel and tourism, Virgin Media and Virgin Cola. There are about 200 companies carrying the Brand name virgin. (VGA, 2010) Virgin stores are known for their lenient administration towards their employees. Decentralization is one of the strategies used by the company. Here the decision-making authority is transferred to the subordinates. Virgin group is a semi formal organization and work together as a big happy family. Here, the staff are empowered with many rights and responsibilities and are considered the strength of the company. Flow of information is very flexible and smooth so as the management (Pravab, 2010) Corporate social responsibility, a new strategy applied to the virgin group that emerges them to move towards social responsibility and to invest money towards a safe and healthy environment for the costumers. The Virgin Green fund project was created and invested into various sectors such as resource efficiency and renewable energy. (VSD, 2010) Employee motivation What is motivation? Motivation is the combination of forces that moves individuals to take certain actions and avoid others in pursuit of individual objectives. Motivation is the reason or reasons for getting involved in certain behaviour, especially human behaviour. There are many theories of motivation but to concentrate more on Virgin Megastores; they follow McGregors Assumptions which are divided into two groups Theory X and Theory Y. The two groups are completely different from each other. As for Virgin Megastores they go with Theory Y which is a really positive way to interact with employees. A short definition of Theory Y is that; Managerial assumption that employees enjoy meaningful work, are naturally committed to certain goals, are capable of creativity, and seek out responsibility under the right conditions. The assumptions behind theory Y emphasize growth and self-direction. Theory Y oriented managers seek to motivate employees through intrinsic rewards. As for Theory X; managerial assumption that employees are irresponsible, are unambitious, and dislike work and that mangers must use force, control, or threats to motivate them. The assumptions behind Theory X emphasize authority. The evidence that proofs that Virgin Megastores follow Theory Y; is that when you enter the store you can see one of the staff members heading towards you and asking you if you need any assistance. Mangers at Virgin motivate them psychologically; by different means. They give them the freedom to dress up in their own way as if they were going to a mall with friends and not in formal suites. In addition, all of virgin Megastores employees are in their 20s and are youth. The mangers have asked them to be themselves when coming to virgin full of youth sprit that catches customer attention. Competitions between employees are also done so that they love their work more and have more personal achievements. If any complications happen they highlight the mistakes personally to the employee and show them the correct way on t overcome these problems. What type of Company is Virgin Mega Store? It is a Private limited business. What is the difference between a limited and unlimited business? Limited company: A limited company can be defined as a business that has been registered in such a manner to ensure its owners to have limited liability. The owners would lose the value of their investment if company declares bankruptcy (farlex financial dictionary, 2010) http://financial-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Limited+Company Unlimited company An unlimited company is company; were the liabilities of the shareholders are not limited. The owners have unlimited obligations to meet any insufficiency in the assets of the company in the event of any bankruptcy. (Wikipedia, 2011) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unlimited_company Public company A public company is a company that had issued securities all through an offering and which is traded in an open market. (webfinance, 2010) http://www.investorwords.com/3932/public_company.html Private limited Private limited company is a company whose shares cannot be traded in the stock market. It can only pass to another person with the shareholders agreement. (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English) MARKETING STRATEGY Theory A marketing strategy can be defined in financial terms as the process of allowing an organization to concentrate its limited resources on the major opportunities to increase sales and attain sustainable development and competitive advantage. The main concept of marketing strategy is consumer satisfaction. It serves as the foundation of the marketing plan. (Wikipedia, 2001-2006) . It is most effective when it becomes an integral part of the corporate strategy; as it clearly defines how the organization will successfully engage costumers, prospects and competitors in the marketing field. The key component of the marketing strategy is to keep a line with the companys overarching mission statements. Marketing strategies in virgin group: After a research done on Virgin group, Bahrain; the sales manager of virgin megastore, Mr. Kevin Koswette stated that virgin group as known now has diversified into various sectors and have around 240 companies. It is very difficult for the company to pay attention to its marketing strategies, as each sector is different from the other. The companies pay the virgin group to market their products; for example: Yamaha musical instruments are sold in virgin megastores as well as Arsenal sports club items. The marketing strategy of each product/service differs from the other as they are from various sectors that the company is diversifies into. For example: marketing strategy for Virgin music cannot be applied to the marketing strategy of virgin airlines. Recommendations: We have noticed that Virgin group involves its employees into their decision making which leads to decentralization of authority in the organization; in our opinion, high decentralization may also lead to loss of authority in the company and may also result to confidential leakage. The leniency in the workforce allows employees to dress up informally as they have the freedom to style their hair inappropriately that may influence youngsters who consider them as role models. Also it may not be acceptable socially in the community. We also noticed in our research about the company, that Mr. Richard Branson- the leader behind this company is a man with great charisma and loves the media exposure. In our opinion, the media exposure can cause negative impacts like scandals and false information about his personal life as well as the company. The flexibility in the workforce, friendly relationship and kindness of the leader- Mr Branson with his employees may result to dishonesty in the workforce; and employees might take advantage of this leniency in terms of achieving their objective. Findings of the project To get information about all the required details we had an interview with Mr. Kevin Koswatte, who is the Manager at Virgin Megastores Bahrain. Here are the questions: Questions In your opinion; what are the advantages and disadvantages of this type of business? What type of leadership style do you follow? What are the techniques used to motivate your staff? Is it limited or unlimited? Private or Public? Can you explain to us the marketing strategies followed by the company? Is it effective or not?
Saturday, January 18, 2020
Banana Wars 1. Who is the winner and in the loser the banana wars? The winner/s: The clear winner in the banana wars are the Transnational Companies (Dole and Chiquita) because they can now sell there product with lower tariff and the same time their product price became more competitive in the market. Another winner in this banana wars are the politicians who are being supported financially by Dole, who has known for giving generous some of support to both the Republican and Democratic parties.And lastly, the CEOs because of their efforts to persuade US help them to complain for the unjust trade of banana in the EU. The loser/s: The loser in the banana wars local producers of bananas in EU. The cost of marketing their banana will increase because of the bananas that were imported and with lower price coming from the US. Another loser of the banana wars are the small business who can not cope in the banana market because of competition. 2. Is the US response silly? Yes, how come that the US will start a banana war simply because the transnational companies who operated in EU is losing in the market.Although it is their right to protest on the tariff and quotas uplifted EU to transnational companies, the EU is simply protecting its local banana industry and its producers. Since EU can produce banana keeping out or limiting imported banana can help them to maintain a healthy local banana industry. 3. What potential threats to WTO are illustrated by the banana wars? The threats to WTO are the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s that would try to oppose its ruling like the United States. And the politicians who is saying that their country is not oblige to comply with WTO rules, and again one classic example is the US.
Friday, January 10, 2020
Proteins are a major constituent of all our organic structure parts, including musculuss, castanetss, hair, and nails. Proteins that circulate in our blood stream besides carry out a figure of of import maps. They help to keep our organic structure maps such as protecting from infection, blood curdling and maintaining the right sum of fluid go arounding around our organic structures, so it is indispensable to keep the right degrees of proteins in our organic structures because of that albuminuria should go a disease which we should pay much attending. The prevalence of stray albuminuria ( symptomless albuminuria ) detected by everyday uranalysis of kids who aged 7-15 old ages were shown to be approximately 10 % although this decreases to 0.1 per centum at repeated testing ( 1 ) . A survey numbering mass showing of school-aged kids in Asia revealed similar findings. The happening increases with age, extremums during adolescence, and is higher in misss. The of import thing is distinction the kid who has proteinuria associated to nephritic diseases, if non healthy kid with transient or benign status of albuminuria. Research shows that type and the degree of albuminuria is a good index of the grade of kidney harm and an earlier warning of developing progressive kidney disease. I hope to discourse about the pathophysiology, etiology, measurings, mark and symptoms, direction and new clinical probes sing albuminuria.What is albuminuria ( in kids ) ?Albuminurias means presence of proteins in inordinate sum, transcending their normal scope in piss. The undermentioned chart shows normal scope of protein elimination harmonizing to the age preferring their organic structure size. Children have somewhat higher usual rate of protein elimination than grownups. Age group Entire protein ( mg per 24 hours ) Entire protein ( mg per M2 per 24 hours ) 95 per centum assurance bounds ( mg per M2 per 24 hours ) 5 to 30 twenty-four hours ( premature ) 29 182 88 to 377 7 to 30 yearss ( full term ) 32 145 68 to 309 2 to 12 months ( baby ) 38 109 48 to 244 2 to 4 old ages ( kid ) 49 91 37 to 223 4 to 10 old ages 71 85 31 to 234 10 to 16 old ages 83 63 22 to 181 Physiologically most healthy kids excrete little sums of protein in their piss. Newborn babies shows highest sum of protein elimination, when corrected for organic structure surface country. Then it decreases with the age until late adolescence. Urinary proteins consist of many of import proteins such as albumen, other plasma proteins, proteins arising in the kidney and urinary piece of land, and chiefly Tamm-Horsfall protein ( uromodulin ) . The normal mention scope of childhood albuminuria is 100mg/m3/day.Mechanism of albuminuria in kidsIn the kidney, fluid that resembles plasma is filtrated from the glomerular capillaries into the nephritic tubules which called as glomerular filtration. This glomerular barrier consists of three beds. They are, Capillary endothelium The cellar membrane Specialized epithelial tissue of the capsule which is made up of Podocytes. In the healthy persons, negligible protein sum is filtrated because of both size selectivity and the charge. Filtration barrier contains negatively charged proteins named sialoproteins and proteoglycans such as heparan sulphate. So this barrier can drive the negatively charged proteins. Fixed collagen net within cellar membrane, podocytes with their interdigitating processes serve as successful size barrier. Low molecular weight proteins can be filtrated by the glomerulus and absorbed by proximal nephritic tubules. Some of them are microglobulin, ? microglobulin, vitamin A1 adhering protein like insulin ( 3, 4 ) . Most of the protein in urine comes from caducous cannular cells ( 5 ) . We can categorise albuminurias harmonizing to mechanism of albuminuria under three headers. They are glomerular albuminurias, cannular albuminuria, secretory albuminuria. Glomerular albuminuria Glomerular albuminuria is caused by increasing permeableness of capillary endothelium. This may run from & A ; lt ; 1g to & A ; gt ; 30g/24hr ( 1 ) . This can be categorized into selective and nonselective glomerular albuminuria. In selective glomerular albuminurias low molecular weight plasma proteins can be loss, together with albumen. In non selective glomerular albuminuria, proteins with big molecular weight such as IgG can be loss. Mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis, amylodosis, segmental glomeruloclerosis, membranous kidney disease are some of the upset characters of glomerular albuminuria. Acute and chronic glomerulonephritis can be due to damage glomerular cellar membrane, increasing the permeableness for plasma proteins. In inborn or minimum nephrotic syndrome, diminishing anionic charge of glomerular cellar membrane can do to loss of albumen. In recent yesteryear, patients who have proteinuria with reduced nephritic mass besides can be found in a great trade of attention-grabbing. Experiments sing this reveal that staying uriniferous tubules are affecting in hyperfiltration taking to progressive glomeruloclerosis ( 7 ) . Glomerular albuminuria should be suspected by first forenoon urine protein/creatinine ratio & A ; gt ; 1.0 or albuminurias with any degree, together with hydrops, high blood pressure, nephritic disfunction and haematuria. Tubular albuminuria In healthy people great sum of proteins which has low molecular weight than albumens such as ?2 microglobulin, Ig visible radiation ironss, retinal binding protein and amino acids are filtrated and later reabsorbed by the proximal tubules ( 8 ) . In tubulointerstitial diseases, these filtered protein are lost in the piss due to a defect in cannular epithelial. Tubular albuminuria can be inherited or acquired upset may be with glycosuria, aminoaciduria and phosphaturia. The relatively high protein elimination can be observed in newborns represents cannular albuminurias owing to immatureness of their nephritic map. Glomerular albuminuria and cannular albuminurias can be distinguished by cataphoresis of the protein sample. Not like the glomerular albuminuria in cannular albuminurias really small sum of albumen can be detected. Secretory albuminuria Secretory albuminuria is owing to oversecretion of tissue proteins in the tubules, particularly oversecretion of Tamm-Horsfall protein from the epithelial cell of the cringle in Henle. Tamm- Horsfall protein has been shown to leak into the inerstium inexperimental reflux kidney disease, clogging uropathy and some tubulointerstitial upsets ( 8 ) .Measurements of albuminuriaThe dipstick trial The urine dipstick trial gives a qualitative judgement of urinary protein elimination. The tetrabromophenol bluish colorimetric method is used by the urine dipstick trial, which is by and large used as testing method. The strength of coloring material alterations from yellow to blue correlatives with the sum of protein in the piss. Albuminuria is chiefly detected by this trial and less sensitive to other signifiers of proteins specially which has low molecular weight. This trial is sensitive to albumin concentration every bit low as 15mg/dL. But it is non satisfactorily sensitive for mensurating albumen in the scope of microalbuminuria. The dipstick is reported as negative, hint ( 10-20 milligram per deciliter ) , 1+ ( 30 milligram per deciliter ) , 2+ ( 100 milligram per deciliter ) , 3+ ( 300 milligram per deciliter ) , and 4+ ( 1,000 milligram per deciliter or greater ) ( 6 ) . But with the dilute piss ( specific gravitation & A ; lt ; 1.002 ) and acidic piss which has low pH valu e than 4.5 and in a disease status which the major urine protein is non albumin can give false negative consequences. False positive consequences can be given with alkalic piss ( pH & A ; gt ; 8 ) , concentrated piss ( specific gravitation & A ; gt ; 1.030 ) , gross haematuria, bacteriuria, taint with antiseptic agents. A dipstick should be considered positive for protein if it registers & A ; gt ; 1+ ( 30 mg/dL ) in urine sample in which the particular gravitation is & A ; lt ; 1.015. If the specific gravitation is & A ; gt ; 1.015, the dipstick must read & amp ; gt ; 2+ to be considered clinically important. Sulfosalicylic acid trial To corroborate the positive consequences of the dipstick trial another trial must be done by utilizing sulfosalicylic acid. Because this trial can observe all categories of proteins. In the trial three beads of sulfosalicylic acid are added to 5 milliliter of piss. So this causes to change over the solution into acidic taking to the precipitation of proteins. But this besides can give false negative consequences due to diluite urine. False positive consequences can take topographic point owing to happening of radiographic contrast stuffs ( 9 ) . Spot urine protein/creatinine ( UPr/Cr ) trial Children with positive consequences for dipstick trial with relentless albuminuria should travel through the more precise topographic point urine protein/creatinine ( UPr/Cr ) trial which gives quantitative measuring of proteins in the piss. The normal ratio for random urine protein/creatinine ratio in younger kids than 2 old ages is & A ; lt ; 0.5, in kids 2 twelvemonth of age or older is & A ; lt ; 0.2. A ratio & A ; gt ; 3 reveals the nephrotic scope of albuminuria. If a kid is given ( UPr/Cr ) 2 & A ; gt ; ratio & A ; gt ; 0.2, it is required to obtain a 24 hour urine aggregation. It has found that in kids with terrible malnutrition, serum and urine creatinine degrees depend on musculus mass, because of that the ratio is non valid. However acquiring random protein/creatinine ratio is a convenient method for gauging urine protein elimination alternatively of acquiring a 24-hour piss aggregation which gives more precise information. But it may be a ground to inaccurate consequences because 20 four-hour urine aggregations are non practical in kids in nappies, and although the kid is potty-trained. To measure the truth of the 24 hr urine sample, it may be helpful in mensurating the sum of creatinine. Steady-state day-to-day creatinine elimination is 20 mg/kg in kids from 1 to 12 old ages of age and 22 to 25 mg/kg in older kids. Girls show lower values in creatinine elimination. Normal protein elimination in kids in 24 hr urine aggregation is defined as & A ; lt ; 4 mg/m2/hr, unnatural is defined as 4-40 mg/m2/hr, nephrotic scope albuminuria is defined as & A ; gt ; 40 mg/m2/hr ( 9 ) . other methods Another of import and most normally used quantitative methods in mensurating protein eliminations are the Coomassie Brilliant Blue dye-binding methods, the Ponceau-S method and Benzethonium chloride method. Low-molecular-weight proteins such as ?2 microglobulin can be straight ditected by Urinary protein cataphoresis. But this will be done in particular state of affairss and it is non a portion of the everyday rating of a kid with albuminuria. Similarly, the finding of microalbuminuria in diabetic kids requires the usage of more sensitive methods such as radioimmunoassay or enzyme-linked immunosorbent check ( 10 ) .The etiologyThe etiology of albuminuria in kids is varied, but harmonizing to the clinical timing and frequence of the job, albuminuria can be categorized under three conditions. They are transeunt albuminurias, orthostatic albuminuria and relentless albuminuria. The orthostatic and transeunt signifiers are benign and more common. Persistent albuminuria may be associated w ith implicit in nephritic diseases and requires farther probes. Transient albuminuria Transient albuminuria is impermanent and 30 % Ã¢â¬â 50 % of the kids with albuminuria belong to this class ( 10 ) . This can go on owing to strenuous exercising, febrility, emphasis, exposure to cold, abdominal surgery, ictuss, desiccation, heat failure and besides due to hemodynamic changes in glomerular blood flow. After stoping of those factors transient albuminuria resolutenesss impetuously. So any therapy or intervention is non needed for kids who have this benign status. Children who have symptomless isolated albuminuria, dipstick trial demands to be repeated hebdomadal no less than two occasions to make up one's mind the albuminuria was non transeunt. If the albuminuria disappears on repetition testing, so it is likely transient. Orthostatic albuminuria Orthostatic albuminuria or postural albuminuria is frequent in kids. Orthostatic albuminuria is affecting in 60 % of all instances of symptomless albuminuria reported in kids. Children with orthostatic albuminurias excrete negligible sum of proteins in supine place. But in the unsloped place protein elimination with the piss is raised up to 10 creases, up to 1000mg/24hr ( 1 ) . Hypertension, nephritic disfunction, hypoalbuminaemia, and haematurias are non present. If all research lab trials are normal apart from persistently elevated protein elimination, farther experiments should be done to govern out or corroborate orthostatic albuminuria. The kid is asked to empty his/her vesica, merely earlier traveling to bed at dark and collects the first urine sample in the following forenoon instantly after originating. Orthostatic albuminuria will be confirmed by the absence of proteins in the first urine sample for three back-to-back yearss. If the early forenoon urine protein/creatinine ( UPr/Cr ) ratio is & A ; lt ; 0.2 mg/mg or the protein elimination in the piss collected from lying/supine place is & A ; lt ; 60mg/m2/day are declarative values of orthostatic albuminurias ( 11 ) . The cause of orthostatic albuminuria is unknown ; nevertheless, partial nephritic vena obstructors in the unsloped place and nephritic hemodynamic alterations have been suggested. Persistent albuminuria Persistent albuminurias can be verified by first urine sample on three back-to-back yearss. Valuess of relentless albuminurias are, protein elimination greater than 4 mg/m2/hr in a 24 hr urine aggregation or topographic point urine protein/creatinine ratio greater than 0.2 mg/mg ) in a urine sample ( 1 ) . This can be pointed out under glomerular or cannular beginning, which I have discussed earlier. Further experiments are needed, to except relentless albuminurias from any implicit in nephritic pathology. Causes for albuminurias are more common than tubulointerstitial causes for albuminuria. We can acknowledge so many different implicit in causes for relentless albuminuria. Specially diabetes mellitus and high blood force per unit area can do harm to the kidney which lead to albuminurias, but they are non outstanding in kids. Research workers have shown that race and ethnicity besides have some consequence on developing albuminuria. African, American, Hispanic, Native American and P acific Islanders illustrations are more likely than Whites to hold albuminurias ( 12 ) . Other causes include, primary and secondary glomerulonephropathy, Collagen vascular disease, medicines, injury, toxic conditions, infections, malignances and immune system upsets. Multiple myeloma and amyloidosis can besides take to proteinuria by increasing production of proteins ( 11 ) . Examples for some of them are listed below.Cause to relentless albuminuria and its clinical characteristics.Glomerular diseases Clinical characteristics Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis haematuria, high blood pressure, oliguria, presence of ruddy blood cells, white blood cells, and cellular dramatis personaes in urine, nephrotic-range albuminuria, hypoalbuminaemia, lipemia Congenital nephrotic syndrome hydrops at birth or during first hebdomad of life, hypoalbuminaemia, lipemia IgA kidney disease Normally older than 10 old ages, haematuria, high blood pressure, oliguria, presence of ruddy blood cells, white blood cells, and cellular dramatis personaes in piss. Membranoproliferative glomerulonepritis haematuria, high blood pressure, oliguria, presence of ruddy blood cells, white blood cells, and cellular dramatis personaes in piss Henoch-Sch & A ; ouml ; nlein purpura cellular dramatis personaes on uranalysis Diabetess mellitus elevated fasting blood glucose, glycosuria, weight loss Malignancies weight loss, cachexy Tubular disease Acute cannular mortification nephritic cannular epithelial cell dramatis personaes on uranalysis, elevated serum creatinine Acute tubulointerstitial Bright's disease acute rise in serum creatinine degree, eosinophilia, white blood cells casts on uranalysis Polycystic kidney disease haematuria, high blood pressure, nephritic inadequacy, nephromegaly, ruddy blood cells on uranalysis, elevated serum creatinine Toxins elevated degree of the toxin Proximal nephritic cannular acidosis acidic piss, glycosuria, aminoaciduria, growing failure, polyuriaSymptoms and marks in kids with albuminuriaClinical characteristics which related to the causes of the albuminuria, can be taken as symptoms and marks associated with relevant conditions of albuminuria, which were given in the tabular array above. Research shows most of the kids with albuminurias will non detect any unnatural mark or symptoms sing this. In kids, differential diagnosing of albuminuria has a big assortment of symptoms and marks. But in inordinate grade of albuminuria, it has some common characteristics related to nephritic disease. Some of them are edema, growing failure and high blood pressure. Their piss may look foamy in lavatories, due to presence of big sums of protein. Although edema formation is non good understood, it can explicate like this. In most cases, monolithic protein loss with urine consequences in hypoproteinaemia and hypoalbuminaemia, which leads to cut down the plasma oncotic force per unit area and transudate of fluid from the intravascular compartment to the interstitial infinite, leads to roll up hydrops fluid in tissues result in periorbital, presacral, venereal, or ankle hydrops. The decrease in intravascular volume decreases nephritic perfusion force per unit area, triping the rennin-angiotensin system. This system acts on adrenal secretory organs to release aldosterone. Both rennin-angiotensin system and aldosterone stimulate the cannular resorption of Na and H2O which leads to high blood pressure.Management of albuminuria in childhoodA complete history of the kid must be taken as the initial rating of albuminuria. History of the nephritic disease, alterations in urine end product, alterations in weight, gross haematuria and re cent upper respiratory infections, should be included for a complete history. First a quantitative measuring should be come into procedure utilizing random or 24 hr aggregation for the UPr/Cr ratio. Parents can liberate from concern if the albuminuria is transeunt or orthostatic and the kid is symptomless. But the kid should be followed by sing a physician and must take the ratio UPR /Cr in each visit. If relentless albuminuria is recognized, intervention procedure depends on the sum of proteins in the piss. If the entire protein elimination is & A ; lt ; 1g/24hr or UPR / Cr is less than 1.0, kid should see physician one time for six months. If the albuminuria exists more than a twelvemonth, kid should travel through a nephritic biopsy. If the entire protein elimination is & A ; gt ; 1g/24hr, a uranalysis should be performed and the physical scrutiny should be done, which consists of measurings of tallness, designation of hydrops, ascites, weight and blood force per unit area, skin lividness and tactual exploration of the kidneys in newborn babies. Then a blood sample must be taken for finding of electrolytes, creatinine, complete blood count, blood urea N and entire protein albumen every six to 12 months. The intervention of relentless albuminurias should be aimed towards the implicit in cause. Renal echography may be helpful to separate anatomical or inborn abnormalcies such as p olycystic kidneys in immature kids ( less than six old ages of age ) . If a kid shows elevated creatinine degrees or hypocomplementaemia or haematuria, a chronic glomerular disease may be present. When urinary protein elimination is in the nephrotic scope ( UPr/Cr & A ; gt ; 3.0 ) , even without hydrops, and the kid is younger than six old ages of age, idiopathic nephrotic syndrome can be expected and a test of corticosteroid therapy should be performed. So a kid with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome should be given a test of Orasone ( 2 mg/kg/day, or 60 mg/m2/day to a upper limit of 80 mg/day ) in up to three divided doses for four to six hebdomads, followed by intervention on other every twenty-four hours for another four to six hebdomads ( 13 ) . Second-line therapy ( cyclophosphamide, Leukeran [ Leukeran ] , cyclosporine [ Sandimmune ] ) may be necessary if steroid intervention fails or inauspicious effects are intolerable ( 7 ) . If the patient has nephrotic scope protein elimination and if that kid is older than six twelvemonth of age, idiopathic nephrotic syndrome can non be expected. So the type of the disease responsible for the nephrotic syndrome can be identified by a nephritic biopsy and a referral to a paediatric nephrologist. Angiotensin-converting enzyme ( ACE ) inhibitor and/or angiotensin-II receptor blocker can be given to the patient with albuminuria as a consequence of nephritic disfunction. It will assist to decrease albuminurias and slow patterned advance of nephritic disease. The kid should travel through a farther unequivocal diagnosing, which is done by a paediatric nephrologist. In recent National Guidelines for the direction of kidney disease NICE ( National institute for Health and Clinical Excellence ) recommends that people with kidney disease and albuminuria should hold systolic blood force per unit area between 120mmHg and 130mmHg and the diastolic blood force per unit area to be less than 80mmHg, as it helps to protect the kidney ( 14 ) . Excessive limitations on the kid Ã¢â¬Ës day-to-day life and physical activity are non required. It has been recognized dietetic protein supplementation to reconstruct the loss of protein is non recommended as it may be harmful. Taking inordinate sums of salt is non desirable and if edema develops, precise salt limitation may be necessary.New clinical probeResearch workers in Canada late reported that high doses of the anti-hypertensive drug ; Candesartan Cilexetil could cut down albuminurias. This drug is an angiotensin-II receptor blocker. It besides has an consequence on fibrosis and redness in the kidney which helps to decelerate the kidney failure in this disease status ( 15 ) . Nutcracker syndrome may be an of import disease status of orthostatic albuminuria in kids. The patients with orthostatic albuminurias have unnatural degrees of anteroposterior diameter and peak speed at the hilar and aorto-mesenteric part of the left nephritic vena. This has been investigated by Doppler echography ( 16 ) . An albumin elimination in the scope of microalbuminuria is now known to be an early index of diabetic glomerular disease and systemic endothelial disfunction and is a utile predictive marker for future cardiovascular events ( 17 ) .DecisionProteinuria is a common research lab determination in kids. Pathophysiology of albuminurias can chiefly depend on either glomerular or cannular defects. A speedy but qualitative appraisal of albuminurias can be taken utilizing dipstick and sulfosalicylic acid methods. More accurate quantitation is obtained by mensurating protein elimination in 24-hour urine samples or by taking the protein/creatinine ratio in random urine samples. Frequently it can be recognized as either a transient or orthostatic in the signifier of benign status. Orthostatic albuminuria is characterized by the presence of protein in urine samples collected in the unsloped place. Persistent albuminuria is associated with serious nephritic diseases. Clinical characteristics from t he history, physical scrutiny, and research lab trials help to happen out the cause of albuminuria. If the albuminuria is transeunt or orthostatic, particular interventions are non required. But farther interventions and research lab trials are mandatory, when refering about the implicit in disease, if the status is relentless.
Thursday, January 2, 2020
Two of the terms you may encounter in organic chemistry are anti-periplanar and syn-periplanar. Both refer to the geometry of chemical bonds in a molecule. Key Takeaways: Anti-Periplanar Definition Anti-periplanar and syn-periplanar are a pair of terms used to describe chemical bond geometry of a molecule.The anti-periplanar conformation is a periplanar conformation in which the dihedral angle between two atoms or groups of atoms isÃ between Ã ±150Ã ° and 180Ã °. In this conformation, the groups are anti-coplanar.The syn-periplanar conformation is a periplanar conformation in which the dihedral angle between the atoms or groups is between Ã ±30Ã °. In this conformation, both groups are on the same side of the molecule. Anti-Periplanar Definition Anti-periplanar refers to a periplanar conformation where the dihedral angle between two atoms or groups of atoms isÃ between Ã ±150Ã ° and 180Ã °. In texts, anti-periplanar means bonds are anti-coplanar. The image shows butane (C4H10) in a syn-periplanar conformation where the two methyl groups (-CH3) are lined up with a 180Ã ° angle. Syn-coplanar is related to anti-periplanar. The dihedral angle between the atoms or groups is between Ã ±30Ã °Ã and the groups are both on the same side of the plane as each other. Sources Eliel, Ernest; Wilen, Samuel; Mander, Lewis (September 1994).Ã Stereochemistry of Organic Compounds. New York: Wiley-Scientific.Kane, Saul; Hersh, William (1 October 2000). Periplanar or Coplanar?. Journal of Chemical Education. 77 (10): 1366.
Tuesday, December 24, 2019
Advice to Counselors-in-Training Amongst the advice that she shared with me, there were a few key components of advice that really stood out me to me. Upon asking Stephanie about any times she felt threatened as a therapist she shared of it being a good practice to have a personal protocol that enables you to talk clients down or to deflect and break out of a physical hold. She maintains that as a counselor, it is important to, Ã¢â¬Å"fall back on listening to your gut if something feels wrong. You don t have to justify it. Set a boundary. Your intuition is your best friend as a therapist.Ã¢â¬ I found this invaluable advice and I felt so ready with confidence to serve. If there is a situation that becomes inappropriate, Stephanie advises not to feel bad about it or make a big deal out of it. If it is violating the contract, I have a right to move them along. She then shared something that I found to be so profound, Ã¢â¬Å"DonÃ¢â¬â¢t let the paperwork scare you. You don t know anyone unless you re with themÃ¢â¬ . She has found that the people she felt would be frightening are some of the Ã¢â¬Å"coolestÃ¢â¬ people and that a lot of people just need someone to protect and feel safe and protected by and then they are devoted to you for life. You just have to maintain that you are a safe person with the words that you use. Reflection Stephanie also shared that like her, I would grow to unlearn the things IÃ¢â¬â¢ve have taught myself. She advised that boundaries are good. The hard thing forShow MoreRelatedDr. Goodfriend And Buddy1168 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDr. Goodfriend and Buddy are high school friends. Every 6 to 9 months Dr. Goodfriend and Buddy speaks on the phone about career, family members, and there whereabouts about other classmates. One day Buddy calls Dr. Goodfriend to talk about how stressed he has been over the last month. 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